Top 7 Most Difficult Languages to Learn and Why

Embarking on the journey to learn a new language is an adventure that brings with it countless benefits, from improving memory and cognitive abilities to opening up opportunities in work, travel and personal growth. However, some languages pose a higher challenge than others due to their complex grammar, unfamiliar sounds, or unique writing systems. This post will explore seven of the most difficult languages to learn, diving into the reasons that make them so challenging.

Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin Chinese tops most lists of difficult languages to learn, especially for English speakers. The language is tonal, meaning the pitch or intonation used when pronouncing a word can change its meaning. Mandarin has four tones, which can be a daunting concept for beginners. The writing system also adds to the complexity, with thousands of characters to memorize. Unlike alphabetic systems, these characters do not give clear hints on pronunciation, making it a double challenge to read and write.


Arabic is a Semitic language with a non-Latin script, which can be a first hurdle for learners. The language is written from right to left and has a unique script that changes shape depending on the position of the letter in the word. The vowels are not usually written, which requires learners to understand the context to read correctly. Arabic also has sounds that do not exist in many other languages, making pronunciation challenging.


While Japanese may not be a tonal language like Mandarin, it has its own set of complexities. The Japanese writing system combines three different scripts: Kanji, Hiragana, and Katakana. Kanji, derived from Chinese characters, can have multiple readings depending on the context. Japanese grammar is also quite different from English, with the verb typically placed at the end of the sentence.


Hungarian stands out among European languages due to its complex grammar. It belongs to the Uralic language family, which is not related to the Indo-European languages most Western learners are familiar with. Hungarian is agglutinative, meaning it uses a large number of affixes to express grammatical relations. It also has 14 different vowel sounds and complex rules for vowel harmony.


Like Hungarian, Finnish is part of the Uralic language family and is agglutinative. It is known for its long words and complex grammar. Finnish also has 15 different cases, which can be a significant challenge for learners, especially those coming from languages with few or no cases. The pronunciation, however, is relatively straightforward with a phonetic alphabet.


Korean is considered difficult due to its unique grammatical structure. The sentence order is subject-object-verb, which can be confusing for English speakers. Korean also has a complex system of honorifics, which changes the verb endings depending on the social status or relationship between the speakers. The Hangul writing system, while logical and relatively easy to learn, does not provide clear pronunciation cues.

Navajo is a Native American language with a reputation for its complexity. It is a verb-centered language, where the action is the main focus and the subject and object can often be left implied. Navajo verbs are incredibly complex, with many prefixes and suffixes that can change the meaning. The language also includes sounds that are rare in other languages, adding to the difficulty in pronunciation.

While these languages are considered the most difficult, the challenge should not discourage potential learners. Every language brings with it a unique worldview and cultural richness. Learning a difficult language can be a rewarding experience that not only enhances cognitive abilities but also provides a deeper understanding of different cultures. Remember, the journey of learning a language is a marathon, not a sprint. So, take your time, enjoy the process, and celebrate every small victory along the way.